Extension of the Immune System Activation
SOLUBLE PRODUCTS OF THE AUTOLOGOUS LYMPHOCYTES
When lymphocytes are activated, they release a number of cytokines and proteins that in turn will activate other effector cells, thus triggering the activation of the immune response. These cytokines are released to the outside of the cell and can be processed and purified for self-application in a safe and effective way.
This effector molecules or cytokines when produced by activated cells have different functions in each of the different cell populations, so we have:
- INF Ϫ (gamma interferon): is produced by TH1 and cytotoxic lymphocytes, inhibits the growth of Th2 lymphocytes, produces macrophage activation and increases the expression of MHC class I and II, activates NK cells.
- IL-2 (Interleukin-2): is produced by TH0, TH1 cells and some cytotoxic T lymphocytes, stimulates the growth of T cells and NK cells.
- TNFα (Tumor Necrosing Factor alpha): is produced by TH1, some TH2 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, it activates macrophages and induces the production of NO, it can activate the micro vascular endothelium.
- GM-CSF (GM Growth Factor): is produced by TH1 , some TH2 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes it promotes differentiation of B cells, inhibits the growth of T cells, it activates macrophages, induces differentiation into dendritic cells, on hematopoietic cells it increases the production of granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.
Other biological effects have been demonstrated in these products such as:
– Favor the arrival of macrophages to the site of inflammation.
– Promote phagocytosis by macrophages.
– Stimulate the DNA of lymphocytes.
– Produce cytotoxicity in tumor cells.
– They can facilitate the mobility of eosinophils into the circulation.
– Activate the complement cascade.
Continuous activation of the immune system helps to decrease the rate of progression of the neoplastic cells, thereby contributing to improvement in quality of life.
Specific Nutrition Therapy for Patients with Cancer NUTRITIONAL ASPECT IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER
Tumor cachexia or malnutrition has a profound impact on the physical, psychological and social development of these patients, because they have an altered metabolism, marked by an increase wastage of protein and fat, causing the loss of muscle mass, additionally these patients carbohydrate metabolism is modified by the rate at which tumors develop and grow with decreased hepatic glucose production and decreased insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues.
These alterations contribute to increased energy expenditure and may lead to a progressive loss of metabolism and muscle mass, however, despite the hyper metabolism and weight loss for these patients they can be exacerbated by increased stress or pain, infection and surgeries. Nutrient intake in these patients is diminished oral most canceled due to the side effects of chemotherapy, and radiation, all these conditions promote malnutrition affecting survival of patients.
Our program considers the nutritional status of the patients highly important, this has an important role in the activation of the immune response, patients receive specific counseling by trained personnel for these special conditions, with the objective that the patient will make better changes in their nutritional habits, oriented to prevention or correction of malnutrition, and improve in an indirect form the activation of the immune system.
Patients also receive an orientation of the food groups that have demonstrated benefits in patients with cancer and also receive an orientation to the food groups that should be prohibited or eliminated from their diet.